content before the page is sent to the user's web browser. Consequently, Node.js has become
development to unify around a single programming language, rather than rely on a different
language for writing server side scripts.
TypeScript is a free and open-source programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft.
language. Anders Hejlsberg, lead architect of C# and creator of Delphi and Turbo Pascal,
has worked on the development of TypeScript.
under the Apache 2 License. TypeScript is included as a first-class programming language
in Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 Update 2 and later, beside C# and other Microsoft languages.
Angular (commonly referred to as "Angular 2+" or "Angular 2") is a TypeScript-based open-source front-end web application
platform led by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations
to address all of the parts of the developer's workflow while building complex web applications.
Angular is a complete rewrite from the same team that built AngularJS.
Ionic is a complete open-source SDK for hybrid mobile app development. Built on top of AngularJS and Apache Cordova, Ionic
provides tools and services for developing hybrid mobile apps using Web technologies like
CSS, HTML5, and Sass. Apps can be built with these Web technologies and then distributed
through native app stores to be installed on devices by leveraging Cordova. Ionic was created
by Max Lynch, Ben Sperry, and Adam Bradley of Drifty Co. in 2013.
Ionic Creator is a drag-and-drop interface building tool. App Builder for Ionic is also provided by Appery.io.
Apache Cordova (formerly PhoneGap) is a mobile application development framework originally created by Nitobi. Adobe Systems
purchased Nitobi in 2011, rebranded it as PhoneGap, and later released an open source version
of the software called Apache Cordova. The software was previously called just "PhoneGap",
then "Apache Callback".
Contributors to the Apache Cordova project include Adobe, BlackBerry, Google, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Mozilla, and others.
Visual Studio Code is a source code editor developed by Microsoft for Windows, Linux and macOS. It includes support for debugging,
embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, intelligent code completion, snippets, and code
refactoring. It is also customizable, so users can change the editor's theme, keyboard shortcuts,
and preferences. It is free and open-source, although the official download is under a proprietary
Visual Studio Code is based on Electron, a framework which is used to deploy Node.js applications for the desktop running
on the Blink layout engine. Although it uses the Electron framework, the software does not
use Atom and instead employs the same editor component (codenamed "Monaco") used in Visual
Studio Team Services (formerly called Visual Studio Online).